FAQ, Useful Links, Explanations, Tests, SSH Commands
Anti-Crime, Anti-Spam & Anti-Phishing Policy
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- Child Pornography
- First of all we need to point your attention to Child Pornography and comparable high criminal activities. Crime is growing as fast as the internet grows. Anyone can be victim and subject or (willed or unwilled) support such.
- All who run a blog, a forum, or other scripts to allow a visitor to upload images or other stuff visible or downloadable for anyone (= stuff being public), has to watch this:
- IF we detect Child Porn or comparable high criminal activities, we suspend the account immedeately w/o prior notification and delete the stuff identified or account's full content.
- Furthermore, we send notification to Registry of related domainnames, to the Police Authority related, and to all Payment Processors with full personal details.
- The account owner has to pay a penalty of Minimum EUR 500.00 for any case.
- This means, if you run such scripts, you need to investigate verify often the content of your account, or - much better - check any upload before you give it free for public.
- We do NOT accept any excuse.
- The account owner is fully responsible for ANY that is in his account.
- A Reseller is fully responsible for ANY that is in his or his customer accounts.
In case of Child Porn or comparable high criminal activities it is not the question if you have it public, it is not allowed to have such stored or have a link to such.
- File folders with permission (CHMOD) 777 are not allowed, except you have password protection for the folder.
777 permission means, anyone can upload all stuff, also scripts, and may hack or misuse your account.
You are responsible for all what works in your account, so watch the security settings of your account.
There is no need to have a file or folder with 777.
If you have a script that requires 777, it is unsecure and you have to remove/ replace it by a secure script.
If you need 777 nevertheless, then make the folder password protected!
If you are unsure if your account is fine, you may ask us to run a complete security check.
- User “nobody”
This is different to problem "user Nobody" for file permissions, read FAQ to Joomla.
Some scripts are designed to get installed on a dedicated server with root access. If such script creates an outgoing mail, the mail has as sender nobody@servername
Such is absolute illegal, and we do not tolerate such. If we detect such, we suspend the account w/o prior notice.
It is your obligation and responsibility to secure that scripts which you install are working correctly and secure!
- Mass mails
You may not send more than 200 mails/ hr. If you want such, you need to do this by one of the big mail ISPs, like Yahoo or GMX.
- Mails sent by visitors
Some forums and other installations allow a visitor to send mails w/o having an own account on the server. In ANY case your scripts have to secure that a visitor need to get registered in your system first, and outgoing mail address is doublechecked if it is correct and sent mails do arrive w/o failure, and the sender has an unique email sender address in format "email@example.com"
If you can't secure it, you need to disable the feature or make the access page pw protected and set up customer accounts manually.
- Suspension, Penalty, Security Operator Handling Fee
- Server endangerment (high cpu load, blacklisting IP, Mass Mails, Phishing Mails, Spamming, or such) caused by an account will cause (temporarily or finally) suspension of the account and/or the domain name w/o prior notice.
- Depending of the concrete case, we charge between 50 EUR and 500 EUR Security Operator Handling Fee.
- Also, if it is an account still running under "30 Days Money Back Guarantee", the guarantee becomes obsolete.
- If it is a reseller account's customer, the reseller is responsible.
- In ANY case, the account owner is fully responsible for all what happens with his account.
- Security Check by Server Tech
If you are not familar with these topics and/or want us to secure that your account if free of any bad script or other security issue, you may purchase a Server Tech Security Check for your webhost account.
We charge for it EUR 19.95
If you want this you may send a ticket.
Setting Up Your E-mail in Microsoft Outlook
Read instructions HERE how to Set Up Your E-mail in Microsoft Outlook.
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Requirements to have a dedicated IP
IPs are rare in between. Because this, the five Regional Internet Registries ( ARIN · LACNIC · AfriNIC · RIPE NCC · APNIC ) have more or less strong rules who can get a dedicated IP.
Standard rule is, that only for a nameserver, or a dedicated server, or for a Digital SSL Certificate a dedicated IP is to let. This means for one who is hosting his domain on a shared server, that he need to purchase both, a Digital SSL Certificate and a dedicated IP for it.
Both you can get for a one year period only, not for shorter period.
Normal, an ISP or DC can obtain a block of IPs (32, 64, 128), and they set the price for a single IP if they let one.
In USA and some European continental countries it is relative cheap and easy to get a dedicated IP. Other countries, where the ISPs or DCs don't have big blocks of IPs (and not of different class-C or class-B nets) it may be that they have higher prices, or are unable to give IPs of different nets. Because this, we need to charge different prices, depending from server location (and so depending from DC)
Several country code domain names, like .DE (Germany) require pre-configuration of two nameservers "of different class-C or class-B nets" - according RFC - before registration of the domain name or before any change. This is not possible to get easy for any server location. In UK and Asia, and also often in USA, sometimes it may be a big deal to get IPs of different nets.
We offer hosting (shared and reseller) always with servers using nameservers of different class-C or class-B nets. Because this, you can host any country code domain name on any server.
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PARK or ADDON a domainname in cPanel
- PARK a domain means, the domain get the same web content as the master domain, needs no extra hosting space.
- ADDON means, the domain get own web content
- If the domain name is registered brand new so that the parent server not yet has stored the use of any nameservers and/or directing to an IP, then cPanel can PARK or ADDON at once the new domainname.
- If it is an exesting domainname which has already entries somewhere, you have to watch at setup, that cPanel checks if the domain is using the server's nameservers already, or ist dedicated to another host.
- So you have FIRST to set the DNS at registry to use the server's nameserver, and wait up the propagating, before you can PARK or ADDON the domainname.
- If for the domainname pre-configuration is required (most of national domains that do), then you will run in a trap if you want to PARK or ADDON an existing domain: cPanel checks if the domain is pointed correct, while the registry server for the national domain checks if the nameservers do response already. The one is waiting that the other goes first, and twisted.
- In such cases you have to place a support ticket with some details listed below, so that we can set up the zone file manually and after that you can change the settings at registry successful:
- If you only want to PARK the domain, we need your account- and servername, and the domainname you want to park.
- If you want to ADDON the domain, first in cPanel you have to create a subdomain of your masterdomain with the corresponding subdirectory. Then you send us your username, servername, name of masterdomain and subdomainname created, and the domainname you want to ADDON.
- This is why any ADDON domain is hosted on top of a subdomain of the masterdomain, and the subdomain is, like any subdomain, related to a subdirectory.
If you ADDON the national domain SAMPLE.DE, then in Filemanager (or FTP) you may see
Two restrictions an ADDON domain has:
- public_html/ (that is your web content of your masterdomain.com)
- public_html/index.html (the indexpage of your masterdomain)
- public_html/sample/ (that is the subdirectory of your subdomain sample.masterdomain.com and the web content for SAMPLE.DEis stored in public_html/sample/ and the index page for SAMPLE.DE is public_html/sample/index.html
- 1) you can't use Fantastico autoinstall
- 2) you can't set an ADDON domain on another ADDON domain
Flash Tutorial: How to ADDON a Domain Name in cPanel
And we warn: Never ADDON or PARK a domain on top of another ADDON or PARKED domain, as this will give big DNS mismatch and lot of manual work after to correct all. (And maybe we'll have to charge an additional handling fee from you) Back to TOP
|How to get out of Google's sandbox|
If your web site has good rankings on Yahoo, MSN and other search engines but not on Google, it's likely that your web site has been put into Google's sandbox.
What is Google's sandbox?
In general, brand-new web sites with new domain names need about 6 - 8 months to get top rankings on Google.
The usual process is that Google indexes the new web site, lists it for some less important queries and then the web pages drop from the search engine result pages for several months. Although other search engines work fine, Google doesn't list the web site, sometimes not even for the company name.
If you have a brand-new web site, don't worry about this behavior. You are not doing anything wrong. Google seems to delay the inclusion of new web sites. This phenomenon is called the Google sandbox.
Why does Google delay the inclusion of brand-new web sites?
It seems that Google delays the inclusion of brand-new web sites to encourage webmasters to build content instead of building mini-networks.
Many webmasters try to artificially inflate the link popularity of their web site by creating a network of small web sites with different URLs that all link to each other. Many of these web sites have no purpose other than linking to the main web site. Meanwhile this may cause a penalty by Google.
The delay might encourage webmasters to focus on the content of their main web site instead of building useless mini sites.
What can you do to get out of the sandbox?
If you have a new web site, expect that your web site will be listed within 6-8 months in Google. Add content to your web site, get good incoming links and make sure that your web pages are optimized for Google (but not only for Google, as other engines, i.e. MSN search, also are important, and some optimization may cause conflicts. More to this aspect coming soon here).
As soon as you have a domain name, create a temporary page and link to it from another web site to make Google aware of your web site. The 6-8 months delay seem to start with Google's first contact with your web site. The sooner Google knows about your web site, the sooner it will be listed.
By the way, Yahoo and MSN don't have such a delay so don't focus on Google alone but also optimize your web pages for these search engines.
Can you speed up the whole process?
Google's sandbox is Google's attempt to prevent spammers from creating web sites.
It seems that there's nothing that can be done to speed up the sandbox process. Some webmasters in online forums suggested that it might help to get inbound links that point to different web pages of your web site, not just to your index page.
It might also help if your web site has its own IP address and it also seems to help if you have a link from the Yahoo directory. However, these theories haven't been confirmed yet.
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|Google Web Accelerator - Warning! |
What it is? See here: webaccelerator.google
If you use GWA (and run software such as forums, blogs, CMS etc) it seems that you run the risk of deleting things on your site(s).
More information HERE.
Obviously this is a major concern, it could potentially destroy everything. Pretty irresponsible on Google's part.
There are ways you can block Google Web Accelerator from your site(s) if you're concerned, but not sure I see the point unless you suspect users who have admin access to anything may be using it.
Here's one site with instructions: fantomaster
and here's another padawan which has instructions and links to further information.
Another problem seems to be that it caches cookies on the google servers, instead of on the local browsers computer. This means that applications which rely on cookies for user authentication or logins will become a security risk. There are already reports of users with this logging on to a forum as someone else.
Luckily it doesn't seem to cache https:// so at least cPanel and WHM should be safe.
|World Root Server Listing|
All root servers of the world. Servers, Operators, Locations
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This is one of the most useful links to check if your domain name and account is set up correct and working proper. Click here
Another test site for DNS settings and more: domain whois record, DNS records, traceroute, network whois record, service scan.
Running from another location than DNS Report. To get complee results, we recommend to use both, DNS Report and Domain Dossier. Also they may give different results sometimes, depending from used parent nameserver. Click here
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Most important test of Network Tools. Checks if the nameserver settings have correct SOA values and if there is an authorative response for the domain name in question, what is important for several national domain registrations. Click here
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German Domainname Requirements for Nameserver
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- A German .DE domain name anyone can buy. The requirements are:
- If the registrant is not legally located in Germany, he has to name a local representative as admin-C with a valid street address (PO BOX does not fit the requirement)
We offer that for free. Some other registrars do ignore it, what may cause a delete of the domain by DENIC w/o any notification.
- The nameserver have to be set up with an authoritative response, and correct SOA values
- The nameservers have to belong to "IP numbers of either different CLASS B or CLASS C" (as required by RFC), what means, they have to be on different located systems.
- The nameservers have to know the .DE before you can transfer it or do any other change.
- Read more to this HERE
- DENIC Zonecheck click HERE
How to transfer a .de domain to 1st€uro?
1) goto Register DE, choose the registration period and submit the order payment
2) Download the KK Form, fill out complete and send it with handsigned signature of the "Admin-C" as GIF file or by fax to us AND to the loosing registrar.
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Requirements to Register a Country Code TLD (ccTLD)
If you order a ccTLD registration and do not host it with us, watch this!
The first you need to watch is, that ANY ccTLD has its own, national requirement, which are often very different. Also the result is different: some refuse the registration, some do the registration for an interim period of 7 - 30 days, but do not connect the domain name.
As we cannot list all different rules, here that rules which are on the secured side, always. For more information you need to visit the NIC's sites:
For all ccTLDs which are not part of your automatic system with direct user access HERE (like . US, .UK, .IN), we require:
To verify your settings you may use this Zone Check, but watch!, you not only need a passed, you need to get ZERO Failure and NO Warning! Passed only means that the German NIC does register the name, but not connect. (other NICs may refuse).
- The most important thing is to be according RFC with the nameservers
- The second important thing is, to have the nameservers set up *before* you send the application to register the domain name.
- To be according RFC, your nameservers
- - need to give an authorative response
- - need to be of different Class-C Nets
- - need to have these SOA values
Therefore, ANY order for a ccTLD registration which is not in our automatic system, we check first if the Zone Check gives ZERO FAILURE and NO WARNING. If it fails or gets a warning, the order goes to HOLD until you send a support ticket and confirm that it is repaired and tested from you. We accept 2 fails from you. After that we charge 9.95 € handling fee.
If you can't manage it, you are free to purchase Managed DNS
If you host the domain name with us, you don't need to watch it, our nameservers are according RFC anyways.
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Deadline for Renewal of a Country Code TLD
Any country code TLD (ccTLD) which is not in our PDR system, i.e. .DE or .BE, has different rules for renewal the domain name. If you not pay the renewal right early = latest 31 days BEFORE expire, they may take the domain name to central sysem but not delete it, and request an addtional fee, or, they may delete the domain name and a new registration requires an additional fee. Details you may read at the national NIC's sites.
In any case, the 31 days borderline is to watch!
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How to transfer a .co.uk or .org.uk domain to 1st€uro?
Because .uk transfers are a push/pull process, you also have to submit a request to the losing registrar. Contact your current registrar and request to retag the domain name to the ISP tag "ENOM". This starts the transfer away process.
If you initiate the transfer with us first, you must submit the request to the losing registrar within one week. If initiating the request to the losing registrar first, you must initiate your transfer with us by either the 8th of current month or the 8th of the following month, whichever is closest to the current date..
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Nameserver Requirements for a .NL Domain Name
When you want to register a .NL domain name, first you have to set up two nameservers with authorative response to the wanted domain name. If that isn't correct, the NIC robot will not register the name.
You can check it: Click here
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The typical life cycle of a domain name can be unpredictable and difficult process to follow. Here we've tried to simplify what generally happens with COM
names to make it easier to understand. The DE (Germany) rules and circle are different. Read HERE!
This graphic gives you an idea of the steps involved and will help you understand what you need to do to acquire and protect domain names of value. Note that the times indicated are not always followed by all parties. For example, some names expire, but are not deleted from the registry for days or months afterward. Others are removed right away.
|available||Five days after the end of the redemption period the domain name will be deleted from the registry and will be made available for anyone to register.|
|registration||A domain name may be registered for up to a ten year period. Even upon renewal the domain name registration period can not extend past a ten year period. .uk domain names can only be registered for two years at a time.|
1 - 10 yrs
|Original registrant recieves renewal notices as expiration date approaches.|
|No response from registrant. Registrar may send delete command to the registry at its discretion. Shortly after the domain name goes past its expiration date the domain name will be deactivated. All domain services including the web page and email will no longer work. The domain may be renewed during this period.|
up to 90 days
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|After the 29 day "Expired" period, the name may go to the redemption tab for up to 90 days. The domain may be renewed by it's original owner by paying a service fee plus the normal renewal fees.|
|.BIZ||EPP||1-10 yrs|| ||gTLD dedicated exclusively to the business community. The .BIZ domain can only be used for a "bona fide business or commercial use".|
|.BZ|| || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||The country-coded Top Level Domain (ccTLD) for the country of Belize. Anyone in the world can register a .bz name.|
|.CC|| ||Auto or Fax|| ||1-10 yrs|| ||Top level domain for the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Anyone in the world can register a .cc domain for any purpose.|
|.CA|| || || || ||1-10 yrs||Canada's ccTLD. There are additional contact attributes required for the Canadian ccTLD.|
|.CN|| ||EPP|| ||1-5 yrs|| ||China's ccTLD. More info|
|.COM||Auto or Fax||1-10 yrs|| ||Short for .commercial. Domain names with the .com extension are by far the most popular, and can be purchased by any individual or business.|
|.DE|| || || || ||1-10 yrs||Germany's ccTLD The administrative contact must have a street address within Germany. If you don't have such, send an email. - .DE names require a minimum of 2 name servers. Please review eNom Registration Agreement for .DE specific legal information.|
|.GS|| || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||WHOIS changes must be made at the Registry. More Info|
|.IN|| ||EPP||1-5 yrs|| ||Top level domain for India. Anyone in the world can register a .in name.|
|.INFO|| ||EPP||1-10 yrs|| ||The first unrestricted top-level domain since .com, .info domains are available to the general public.|
|.JP|| || || || ||1-10 yrs||Japanese address requirements. Multilingual names will not be supported.|
|.MS|| || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||WHOIS changes must be made at the Registry. More Info|
|.NAME|| || ||1-10 yrs|| ||Available to the general public, .name email addresses are listed as firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com, while Web sites are listed as www.firstname.lastname.name.|
Get a .NAME | More info on .NAME.
|.NET||Auto or Fax||1-10 yrs|| ||Short for .network, this domain extension was originally designed to be used by technical Web sites. However, domains using this extension can be registered by anyone.|
|.NU|| || || ||2-10 yrs|| ||The ccTLD for the country of Niue. There are no residency restrictions, these domains can be registered by anyone.|
|.ORG||EPP||1-10 yrs|| ||Short for .organization. Originally designated for non-profit firms and any other organizations that did not fit under the .com or .net extension, any individual or business may now register a .org domain name.|
|.TC|| || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||WHOIS changes must be made at the Registry.|
|.TM|| || || ||10 yrs|| ||Turkmenistan - Pseudo international domain for "TradeMark"|
|.TV|| || || ||1-10 yrs|| || |
|.COM.TW|| || || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||Taiwan's ccTLD More info|
|.US||EPP||1-10 yrs||Download the list of .US restricted Names version 2 (225KB zip file). Note: You must meet all the .US Nexus registration requirements to register a name in the .US TLD.|
|.CO.UK|| || ||Auto|| ||2, 4, 6, 8|
or 10 yrs
|Currently, contact information modifications are not immediate. .UK names require a minimum of 2 name servers. Name servers changes/updates may take up to half an hour. A renewal cannot be issued until at least five (5) months prior to the domain's expiration date and effects of a renewal do not occur instantly. Please review eNom Registration Agreement for .UK specific legal information.|
|.KIDS.US|| || || ||1-5 yrs||Not in regular sales yet|
|.VG|| || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||WHOIS changes must be made at the Registry.|
|.WS|| || || || ||1-10 yrs|| ||Samoa - Pseudo international domain for "Website"|
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Requirements for a Domain Transfer
Several national domain names have different requirements for domain transfers from one registrar to another.
· Germany (.DE): The "Admin-C" (Administrative Contact) has to send by fax a special doc, called "KK", with his handwritten sign, to the new registrar AND to the old registrar before he can start the transfer process. If the old registrar does not get that form correct, for security reasons he has to secure that a transfer request is not possible. Ask the new registrar for the right KK-form that you have to send.
· Great Britain (.UK): To facilitate the transfer of .uk domains, the old registrar has to update the tag for the domain at Nominet UK to reflect that of the new registrar (eNom). If it is a transfer to us and started before the tag is changed by the old registrar, the customer has to secure that it will be done within 5 days.
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How I can verify if my site is up?
Problem: I can't see my site from my PC
Before you submit a support ticket or complain that the server is down or your account deleted, you need to verify what is on in fact and who is responsible.
It may have lot of different reasons, why a site is not to see, and most are not within our responsibility:
Your IP is blacklisted
This may be if you login by a dialup IP and before you smeone misuses the access to send mass of spam or made other activity which made the firewall to block the IP. Most ISPs do not send a message to the Datacenter to get the IP free again, but their system gives the IP to the next dialup user after the other disconnected.
In such cases you need to check what IP you use and send both, your ISP and us a message with that IP.
Your Network connection is broken
somewhere between you and our server, or gives bad packets If the server and your website is technically up you can check always quickly here: http://monitor.1steuro.us/de/quicktest.php
· Test Type => Website
· URL/Hostname => yourdomain.com
· Port => nothing, let empty
if OK, you can be sure that there is no problem with the site technically. If you have problems nevertheless, it is either your ISP, or your IP is blacklisted, or you need to change your browser settings and empty your cache, or is is a failure in DNS settings at registrar. But it is nothing caused by us, certainly.
Your website is not to see althought the monitors (above) say the site is OK
go here https://www.megaproxy.com/freesurf/ and try to visit your website by Proxy. If you get the website, then you need to contact your ISP or check your browser settings, and send us your IP to check if you're IP is blacklisted.
If you get NOT the website, then submit a ticket and report what error message you get on your browser. It may be that there is a misconfiguration by a script you installed, or you edit/removed accidently a file, or such.
We always have monitors running for all servers, and if there is a problem with the server, then we set an ALERT at http://1steuro.net/network.html
- Other sources to check your domain and server settings technically
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Where are my mails (files) gone?
Problem: when I login cPanel and look in Filemanager, I get nothing
Your Storage Limit
- remember, the account size (storage limit) is for ALL in your account.
- remember how cpanel works: For any operation it creates a tmp file. So incoming mails get to tmp, and then stored in the right mailbox. If you enter File manager or Disk Usage Viewer, cPanel generates the list to show, and for that it needs tmp, means: also free space.
- If your account is close to limit or over limit, cpanel no longer can generate this and so you cannot see any file, only website visit by http and ftp login works.
- you need to look at your Disk Usage Viewer what is using how much, and download/delete mails by POP3 and/or by ftp delete other files, i.e. statistics in Analog, Webalizer, or other.
- Same is when you generate a backup file.
- If you are over quota, we can lift temporarily the limit to enable you to do that work.
- If you don't get managed it by this way, maybe you need to upgrade your account to get more storage.
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PHP 4 end of life announcement
The PHP team announced that support for PHP 4 will continue until the end of this year only.
After 2007-12-31 there will be no more releases of PHP 4.4.
We will continue to make critical security fixes available on a case-by-case basis until 2008-08-08.
We will be migrating all the servers strictly to PHP5 after 1st of November 2007.
scripts work with register_globals ON need to make working with register_globals OFF
Please use the rest of this year to make your application suitable to run on PHP 5
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What is phpSuExec ?
You may read some good explanations HERE and HERE.
We do not have phpSuExec enabled on our servers - installing phpSuExec means running php in cgi mode. We have PHP in cli mode.
Let get into core of this -
Its not particular software issue -- its about PHP.
PHP can be compiled on server in two ways --
PHP as a CGI with Suexec
When PHP runs as a CGI with Suexec, PHP files work under your user/group. PHP files no longer require loose permissions to function, now they will require strict permissions.
Setting your directories or PHP files to 777 will cause them to produce a 500 Internal Server Error, this happens to protect your PHP files from being abused by outside sources.
Under PHPSuexec your directories and PHP files can have permissions no greater than 755 (read/write/execute by your username, read/execute by group/world). Since you own your files, your scripts can function in any directory your user has created and can't be manipulated by any outside users, including "nobody".
Now, when a PHP file creates or uploads a new file under your account, the new file will be owned by your username. You will no longer have to worry about the webserver taking over your files and even more important, you will no longer have to worry about a stranger reading or writing to your files either!
Php compiled with suexec has some disadvantages -
* Some scripts will not work with this.
* .htaccess feature cannot be used since .htaccess is apache module feature.
PHP as an Apache Module
When PHP runs as an Apache module, PHP files work under the Apache user/group known as "nobody". For example, when a PHP file needs to write to another file or create/remove a file, it does so under the name "nobody". In order to allow "nobody" to do this, you need to set specific permissions on the file/directory, such as 777 - which translates to read/write/execute by user/group/world. This is insecure because you have not only allowed the webserver (Apache) to read/write to the file, you have also allowed everyone else on the server to read/write to the file as well!
Due to the above conditions, when a PHP file creates or uploads a new file under your account, the new file will be owned by the user "nobody". If you FTP into your account, all files owned by "nobody" will not be available for you to move, rename or delete. In this case the only way to remove the "nobody" owned files would be through a file on the server or to contact support and ask for the file ownership to be changed back to your username.
March 30, 2009 -We now have on all server switch Apache configuration to use suPHP handler. More to this you may read HERE
- No folder may be at CHMOD 777 anymore, but on 755 instead, also upload folders
- Files need to be CHMOD 644 or (Http) 755 minimum
- Customers have own php.ini file
- In case of problem, check if php.ini contains "output_buffering = 4096"
- htaccess file must not have php configuration
- enable Safe_mode and register globals -- for security reason
- disable some functions that can cause problems on the server (some one can huck the server via php scripts using this func.)
- disable_functions = exec,shell_exec,mb_send_mail,system,popen,proc_open,ini_restore,dl,passthru
- If you have folders with CHMOD 777, you need to change them to 755
- If you have files or folders with ownership "99" or "nobody", submit a support ticket, all files now need ownership of account
- If your applications need an own php.ini, pls send a support ticket. It must be enabled for each user individually.
- We have installed php4 and enabled it as suphp. It will be used to handle all php files what have extension php4. Also we switched php5 to suphp. This is default version of php what will be used.
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What is .htaccess ?
.htaccess is a file that a user can use to override values defined globally in apache or php.
More to it read HERE and HERE and HERE.
Online .htaccess file generator HERE
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File Permissions and the chmod/chgrp/chown commands
A good article to this you find HERE.
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File Ownership "NOBODY" and Joomla Problems
Problem: You cannot CHMOD files/folders with ownership "nobody", but some scripts and applications (like Joomla) create such.
Upload of files or folders by http, i.e. using Joomla, creates files/folders with owner "nobody" and requires manual edit.
As you are on a shared system, any file/folder needs to have an ownership. If a file gets created with ownership "nobody" (only acceptable if you run a dedicated server with root access), then there is no user to whom the file belongs to, resp. it belongs to server administrator only.
Solution: (in this sample the file in case is "testfile.php" in folder "testfolder")
If you have problems nevertheless, you may send a support ticket. Also download and read HERE
- download "testfile.php"
- enter cPanel => File Manager => public_html
- create a folder with name "testfolder2" and there a file "testfile2.php"
- upload file "testfile2.php"
- delete folder "testfolder" and there file "testfile.php"
- rename folder "testfolder2" to "testfolder" and there file "testfile2.php" to "testfile.php"
- Mail settings in Joomla can be changed using the global configuration in the administration side of it.
Back to TOP
- ls or dir
ls -al : this lists ALL the files and directories along with their details
So for example to enter the directory 'new', type cd new
cd ~ go to the home diretory
cd - go to the last directory you were in
cd .. go up a directory
print file contents to the screen
cat filename.txt will show you the contents of filename.txt
this is like cat, but only reads the end of the file
· tail /home/username/public_html/file.txt : see the last 20 (by default) lines of /home/username/public_html/file.txt
· tail -f /home/username/public_html/file.txt : watch the file continuously, while it's being updated
· tail -200 /home/username/public_html/file.txt : print the last 200 lines of the file to the screen
like cat, but opens the file one screen at a time rather than all at once
· more /home/username/public_html/file.txt : browse through file.txt. hit <space> to go to the next page, <q> to quit
friendly, easy to use editor
· pico /home/username/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user's website.
create an empty file
· touch /home/username/public_html/404.html : create an empty file called 404.html in the directory /home/username/public_html/
shows disk usage.
· du -sh : shows a summary of total disk space used in the current directory, including subdirectories.
· du -sh * : this does the same thing, but tells you the space usage for each file and directory.
copy a file
· cp filename filename.backup : copies filename to filename.backup
· cp -a /home/home/new_design/* /home/username/public_html/ : copies all files, retaining permissions from one directory to another.
- a2p - Awk to Perl translator
- ab - Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool
- addftinfo - add information to troff font files for use with groff
- addr2line - convert addresses into file names and line numbers.
- ansi2knr - convert ANSI C to Kernighan & Ritchie C
- apm - query Advanced Power BIOS
- apmsleep - go into suspend or standby mode and wake-up later
- apropos - search the whatis database for strings
- ar - create, modify, and extract from archives
- arch - print machine architecture
- as - the portable GNU assembler.
- ascii-xfr - ascii-upload/download files using the ASCII protocol
- ash - command interpreter (shell)
- asn1parse - ASN.1 parsing tool
- at - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
- atq - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
- atrm - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
- attr - extended attributes on XFS filesystem objects
- autoconf - Generate configuration scripts
- autoheader - Create a template header for configure
- autom4te - Generate files and scripts thanks to M4
- autopoint - copies standard gettext infrastructure
- autoreconf - Update generated configuration files
- autoscan - Generate a preliminary configure.in
- autoupdate - Update a configure.in to a newer Autoconf
- autovbox - ISDN voice box (sound converter)
- awk - pattern scanning and processing language
- backend - cups backend transmission interfaces
- basename - strip directory and suffix from filenames
- bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell
- bashbug - report a bug in bash
- batch - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
- bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
- bonobo-activation-server -
- bsh - command interpreter (shell)
- builtins - bash, :, ., [, alias, bg, bind, break, builtin, cd, command, compgen, complete,
- bunzip2 - a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.2
- bzcat - a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.2
- bzcmp - compare bzip2 compressed files
- bzdiff - compare bzip2 compressed files
- bzgrep - search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression
- bzip2 - a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.2
- bzip2recover - a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.2
- bzless - file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text
- bzmore - file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text
- c2ph - Dump C structures as generated from "cc -g -S" stabs
- ca - sample minimal CA application
- cal -
- cancel - print files
- cancel-cups - print files
- captoinfo - convert a termcap description into a terminfo description
- cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output
- c++filt - Demangle C++ and Java symbols.
- chacl - change the access control list of a file or directory
- chage - change user password expiry information
- chattr - change file attributes on a Linux second extended file system
- chfn - change your finger information
- chgrp - change group ownership
- chmod - change file access permissions
- chown - change file owner and group
- chroot - run command or interactive shell with special root directory
- chrt - manipulate real-time attributes of a process
- chsh - change your login shell
- chvt - change foreground virtual terminal
- ciphers - SSL cipher display and cipher list tool.
- cjpeg - compress an image file to a JPEG file
- cksum - checksum and count the bytes in a file
- clear - clear the terminal screen
- cmp -
- col -
- colcrt -
- colrm -
- column -
- comm - compare two sorted files line by line
- config.guess - guess the build system triplet
- config.sub - validate and canonicalize a configuration triplet
- cp - copy files and directories
- cpan - easily interact with CPAN from the command line
- cpio - copy files to and from archives
- cpp - The C Preprocessor
- crl - CRL utility
- crl2pkcs7 - Create a PKCS#7 structure from a CRL and certificates.
- croco-config - croco-script to get information about the installed version of LIBCROCO
- crontab - maintain crontab files for individual
- csh - C shell with file name completion and command line editing
- csplit - split a file into sections determined by context lines
- csslint - command line CSS tool
- cupstestppd - test conformance of ppd files
- cut - remove sections from each line of files
- cvs - Concurrent Versions System
- date - print or set the system date and time
- dbmmanage - Manage user authentication files in DBM format
- dbus-cleanup-sockets - dbus-cleanup-clean up leftover sockets in a directory
- dbus-daemon-1 - dbus-daemon-Message bus daemon
- dbus-launch - dbus-Utility to start a message bus from a shell script
- dbus-monitor - dbus-debug probe to print message bus messages
- dbus-send - dbus-Send a message to a message bus
- dc - an arbitrary precision calculator
- dd - convert and copy a file
- ddate - converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates
- deallocvt - deallocate unused virtual consoles
- df - report filesystem disk space usage
- dgst - message digests
- dhparam - DH parameter manipulation and generation
- diff - find differences between two files
- diff3 - find differences between three files
- dig - DNS lookup utility
- dir - list directory contents
- dircolors - color setup for ls
- dirname - strip non-directory suffix from file name
- djpeg - decompress a JPEG file to an image file
- doexec - run an executable with an arbitrary argv
- dos2unix -
- dprofpp - display perl profile data
- dsa - DSA key processing
- dsaparam - DSA parameter manipulation and generation
- du - estimate file space usage
- dumpkeys - dump keyboard translation tables
- dvipdf - Convert TeX DVI file to PDF using ghostscript and dvips
- dynipadmin - DynIP Internet Name Administration Program
- dynipclient - DynIP Client
- echo - display a line of text
- ed - text editor
- eject - eject removable media
- enc - symmetric cipher routines
- enc2xs - enc2xs -- Perl Encode Module Generator
- env - run a program in a modified environment
- eps2eps - Ghostscript PostScript "distiller"
- epsffit - fit encapsulated PostScript into constrained size
- eqn - format equations for troff
- eqn2graph - convert an EQN equation into a cropped image
- ex - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- expand - convert tabs to spaces
- expr - evaluate expressions
- extractres - filter to extract resources from a PostScript document
- factor - factor numbers
- false - do nothing, unsuccessfully
- fam - file alteration monitor
- fax2ps - convert a
- fax2tiff - create a
- fc-cache - fc-create an index of FreeType font files in a directory
- fc-list - fc-list available fonts
- fgconsole - print the number of the active VT.
- file - file
- filter - cups file conversion filter interfaces
- find - search for files in a directory hierarchy
- find2perl - translate find command lines to Perl code
- findsmb - list info about machines that respond to SMB name queries on a subnet
- finger -
- fixdlsrps - filter to fix DviLaser/PS documents to work with PSUtils
- fixfmps - filter to fix Framemaker documents so PSUtils work
- fixmacps - filter to fix Macintosh documents with saner version of md
- fixpsditps - filter to fix Transcript psdit documents so PSUtils work
- fixpspps - filter to fix PSPrint PostScript so PSUtils work
- fixscribeps - filter to fix Scribe documents so PSUtils work
- fixtpps - filter to fix Tpscript documents to work with PSUtils
- fixwfwps - filter to fix Word for Windows documents so PSUtils work
- fixwpps - filter to fix WP documents so PSUtils work
- fixwwps - filter to fix Windows Write documents so PSUtils work
- fmt - simple optimal text formatter
- fold - wrap each input line to fit in specified width
- font2c - Write PostScript Type 0 or Type 1 font as C code
- foomatic-combo-xml - foomatic-combo-[put a short description here]
- foomatic-compiledb - foomatic-Compile the Foomatic printer/driver database
- foomatic-configure - foomatic-the main configuration program of the foomatic
- foomatic-gswrapper - foomatic-foomatic wrapper for ghostscript
- foomatic-perl-data - foomatic-perl-generate Perl data structures from XML
- foomatic-ppdfile - foomatic-Generate a PPD file for a given printer/driver combo
- foomatic-printjob - foomatic-[put a short description here]
- foomatic-rip - foomatic-Universal print filter/RIP wrapper
- formail - formatter
- free - display information about free and used memory on the system
- ftp - file transfer program
- funzip - filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe
- fuser - identify processes using files or sockets
- gawk - pattern scanning and processing language
- gcov - coverage testing tool
- gdm - The GNOME Display Manager
- gendiff - utility to aid in error-free diff file generation
- gendsa - generate a DSA private key from a set of parameters
- genhostid - generate and set a hostid for the current host
- genrsa - generate an RSA private key
- geqn - format equations for troff
- GET - lwp-Simple WWW user agent
- getafm - create an AFM file for a PostScript font.
- getent - get entries from administrative database
- getfacl - get file access control lists
- getfattr - get extended attributes of filesystem objects
- getopt - parse command options (enhanced)
- gettext - translate message
- gettextize - install or upgrade gettext infrastructure
- ghostscript - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)
- gif2tiff - create a
- gij - GNU interpreter for Java bytecode
- gindxbib - make inverted index for bibliographic databases
- glookbib - search bibliographic databases
- gnroff - emulate nroff command with groff
- gpasswd - administer the /etc/group file
- gpg - gpg -- encryption and signing tool
- gpgv - gpgv -- signature verification tool
- gpm-root - gpm-a default handler for gpm, used to draw menus on
- gprof - display call graph profile data
- grefer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff
- grep - print lines matching a pattern
- grepjar - search files in a jar file for a pattern
- grn - groff preprocessor for gremlin files
- grodvi - convert groff output to TeX dvi format
- groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system
- groffer - display groff files and man~pages on X and tty
- grohtml - html driver for groff
- grolbp - groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers).
- grolj4 - groff driver for HP Laserjet 4 family
- grops - PostScript driver for groff
- grotty - groff driver for typewriter-like devices
- groups - print the groups a user is in
- gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)
- gsbj - Format and print text using ghostscript
- gsdj - Format and print text using ghostscript
- gsdj500 - Format and print text using ghostscript
- gslj - Format and print text using ghostscript
- gslp - Format and print text using ghostscript
- gsnd - Run ghostscript (PostScript and PDF engine) without display
- gsoelim - interpret .so requests in groff input
- gtroff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system
- gzexe - compress executable files in place
- gzip - compress or expand files
- h2ph - convert .h C header files to .ph Perl header files
- h2xs - convert .h C header files to Perl extensions
- head - output the first part of files
- HEAD - lwp-Simple WWW user agent
- hesinfo - find out what is stored in the Hesiod database
- hexdump -
- host - DNS lookup utility
- hostid - print the numeric identifier for the current host
- hostname - show or set the system's host name
- hpftodit - create font description files for use with groff -Tlj4
- htdigest - manage user files for digest authentication
- htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication
- ibod - ISDN MPPP bandwidth on demand daemon
- iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another
- id - print real and effective UIDs and GIDs
- ifnames - Extract CPP conditionals from a set of files
- igawk - gawk with include files
- ijsgimpprint - Ghostscript driver for Gimp-Print
- includeres - filter to include resources in a PostScript document
- indxbib - make inverted index for bibliographic databases
- info - read Info documents
- infocmp - compare or print out terminfo descriptions
- infotocap - convert a terminfo description into a termcap description
- initlog - log messages and events to the system logger
- install - copy files and set attributes
- install-info - install-update info/dir entries
- intro - Introduction to user commands
- ipcalc - perform simple manipulation of IP addresses
- isdnconf - manipulate or read ISDN phone number config files.
- isdnrate - Print telefon rates and various info from .
- isdnrep - report isdn activity
- jar - archive tool for Java archives
- join - join lines of two files on a common field
- jpegtran - lossless transformation of JPEG files
- jv-convert - jv-Convert file from one encoding to another
- jwhois - client for the whois service
- kbd_mode - report or set the keyboard mode
- kernelversion - program to report major version of kernel
- kill - terminate a process
- killall - kill processes by name
- last - show listing of last logged in users
- ldd - print shared library dependencies
- less - opposite of more
- lesskey - specify key bindings for less
- lftp - Sophisticated file transfer program
- libnetcfg - configure libnet
- link - call the link function to create a link to a file
- lkbib - search bibliographic databases
- ln - make links between files
- loadkeys - load keyboard translation tables
- locale - Get locale-specific information.
- localedef - compile locale definition files
- locate - Security Enhanced version of the GNU Locate
- lockfile - conditional semaphore-file creator
- logger -
- login - sign on
- logname - print user's login name
- logresolve - Resolve IP-addresses to hostnames in Apache log files
- longrun - utility
- look -
- lookbib - search bibliographic databases
- lp - print files
- lp-cups - print files
- lpoptions - display or set printer options and defaults
- lppasswd - add, change, or delete digest passwords.
- lpq - show printer queue status
- lpq-cups - show printer queue status
- lpr - print files
- lpr-cups - print files
- lprm - cancel print jobs
- lprm-cups - cancel print jobs
- lpstat - print cups status information
- lpstat-cups - print cups status information
- ls - list directory contents
- lsattr - list file attributes on a Linux second extended file system
- lwp-download - lwp-fetch large files from the net
- lwp-mirror - lwp-Simple mirror utility for WWW
- lwp-request - lwp-Simple WWW user agent
- lwp-rget - lwp-Retrieve WWW documents recursively
- mac2unix -
- mail -
- Mail -
- mailq - mailq
- mailq.sendmail - mailq
- make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs
- man - format and display the on-line manual pages
- man2html - format a manual page in html
- manpath - format and display the on-line manual pages
- mbchk - check the format of a Multiboot kernel
- mcookie - generate magic cookies for xauth
- md2 - message digests
- md4 - message digests
- md5 - message digests
- md5sum - compute and check MD5 message digest
- mdc2 - message digests
- mesg - control write access to your terminal
- mev - a program to report mouse events
- minicom - friendly serial communication program
- mkdir - make directories
- mkfifo - make FIFOs (named pipes)
- mknod - make block or character special files
- mktemp - make temporary filename (unique)
- more -
- mozilla - a Web browser for X11 derived from Netscape Communicator
- mpage - print multiple pages per sheet on PostScript printer
- msgattrib - attribute matching and manipulation on message catalog
- msgcat - combines several message catalogs
- msgcmp - compare message catalog and template
- msgcomm - match two message catalogs
- msgconv - character set conversion for message catalog
- msgen - create English message catalog
- msgexec - process translations of message catalog
- msgfilter - edit translations of message catalog
- msgfmt - compile message catalog to binary format
- msggrep - pattern matching on message catalog
- msginit - initialize a message catalog
- msgmerge - merge message catalog and template
- msgunfmt - uncompile message catalog from binary format
- msguniq - unify duplicate translations in message catalog
- mt - control magnetic tape drive operation
- mv - move (rename) files
- namei - follow a pathname until a terminal point is found
- nano - Nano's ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
- neqn - format equations for ascii output
- netreport - request notification of network interface changes
- newaliases - newaliases
- newaliases.sendmail - newaliases
- newgrp - log in to a new group
- ngettext - translate message and choose plural form
- nice - run a program with modified scheduling priority
- nl - number lines of files
- nm - list symbols from object files
- nmblookup - NetBIOS over TCP/IP client used to lookup NetBIOS names
- nohup - run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
- nroff - emulate nroff command with groff
- nseq - create or examine a netscape certificate sequence
- ntlm_auth - tool to allow external access to Winbind's NTLM authentication function
- ntpd - Network Time daemon
- ntpdate - set the date and time via NTP
- ntpstat - show network time synchronisation status
- objcopy - copy and translate object files
- objdump - display information from object files.
- ocsp - Online Certificate Status Protocol utility
- od - dump files in octal and other formats
- omshell - OMAPI Command Shell
- onsgmls - An SGML System Conforming to International Standard ISO 8879 -- Standard Generalized Markup Language. An SGML Extended Facilities system conforming to Annex A of Internal Standard ISO/IEC 10744 -- Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language
- openjade - apply a DSSSL stylesheet to an SGML or XML document
- openssl - OpenSSL command line tool
- openvt - start a program on a new virtual .
- osgmlnorm - An SGML System Conforming to International Standard ISO 8879 -- Standard Generalized Markup Language. An SGML Extended Facilities system conforming to Annex A of International Standard ISO/IEC 10744 -- Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language.
- ospam - An SGML System Conforming to International Standard ISO 8879 -- Standard Generalized Markup Language. An SGML Extended Facilities system conforming to Annex A of Internation Standard ISO/IEC 10744 -- Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language.
- ospent - Concatenate entities
- osx - An SGML System Conforming to International Standard ISO 8879 -- Standard Generalized Markup Language. An SGML Extended Facilities system conforming to Annex A of International Standard ISO/IEC 10744 -- Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language.
- pal2rgb - convert a palette color
- passwd -
- paste - merge lines of files
- pathchk - check whether file names are valid or portable
- pax -
- pbm2ppa - convert portable to HP's Printing Performance file format
- pcregrep - a grep with Perl-compatible regular expressions.
- pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
- pdf2dsc - generate a PostScript page list of a PDF document
- pdf2ps - Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator
- pdfopt - Ghostscript PDF Optimizer
- perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
- perl5004delta - what's new for perl5.004
- perl5005delta - what's new for perl5.005
- perl561delta - what's new for perl v5.6.x
- perl56delta - what's new for perl v5.6.0
- perl570delta - what's new for perl v5.7.0
- perl571delta - what's new for perl v5.7.1
- perl572delta - what's new for perl v5.7.2
- perl573delta - what's new for perl v5.7.3
- perl58delta - what is new for perl v5.8.0
- perlaix - Perl version 5 on IBM systems
- perlamiga - Perl under Amiga OS
- perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API
- perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.
- perlapollo - Perl version 5 on Apollo DomainOS
- perlartistic - the Perl Artistic License
- perlbeos - Perl version 5 on BeOS
- perlbook - Perl book information
- perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial
- perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
- perlbs2000 - building and installing Perl for BS2000.
- perlbug - how to submit bug reports on Perl
- perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C
- perlcc - generate executables from Perl programs
- perlcheat - Perl 5 Cheat Sheet
- perlclib - Internal replacements for standard C library functions
- perlcn - ???????? Perl ???
- perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator
- perlcygwin - Perl for Cygwin
- perldata - Perl data types
- perldbmfilter - Perl DBM Filters
- perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging
- perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial
- perldebug - Perl debugging
- perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.1
- perldgux - Perl under DG/UX.
- perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
- perldoc - Look up Perl documentation in Pod format.
- perldos - Perl under DOS, W31, W95.
- perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
- perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
- perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program
- perlepoc - Perl for EPOC
- perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2003/01/31 17:37:17 $)
- perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.12 $, $Date: 2003/07/09 15:47:28 $)
- perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.20 $, $Date: 2003/01/26 17:50:56 $)
- perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.35 $, $Date: 2003/08/24 05:26:59 $)
- perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.49 $, $Date: 2003/09/20 06:37:43 $)
- perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date: 2003/01/26 17:45:46 $)
- perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions ($Revision: 1.20 $, $Date: 2003/01/03 20:05:28 $)
- perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.15 $, $Date: 2003/07/24 02:17:21 $)
- perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.17 $, $Date: 2003/01/26 17:44:04 $)
- perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.15 $, $Date: 2003/01/31 17:36:57 $)
- perlfilter - Source Filters
- perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation
- perlform - Perl formats
- perlfreebsd - Perl version 5 on FreeBSD systems
- perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
- perlgpl - the GNU General Public License, version 2
- perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API
- perlhack - How to hack at the Perl internals
- perlhist - the Perl history records
- perlhpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
- perlhurd - Perl version 5 on Hurd
- perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal
- perlintro - perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl
- perliol - C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers.
- perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
- perlirix - Perl version 5 on Irix systems
- perlivp - Perl Installation Verification Procedure
- perljp - ????? Perl ??????
- perlko - Perl?? ????? ?????
- perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings
- perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)
- perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl
- perlmachten - Perl version 5 on Power MachTen systems
- perlmacos - Perl under Mac OS (Classic)
- perlmacosx - Perl under Mac OS X
- perlmint - Perl version 5 on Atari MiNT
- perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
- perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules
- perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
- perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide
- perlmpeix - Perl/iX for HP e3000 MPE
- perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution
- perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
- perlobj - Perl objects
- perlop - Perl operators and precedence
- perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl
- perlos2 - Perl under OS/2, DOS, Win0.3*, Win0.95 and WinNT.
- perlos390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
- perlos400 - Perl version 5 on OS/400
- perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl
- perlpacktut - tutorial on "pack" and "unpack"
- perlplan9 - Plan 9-specific documentation for Perl
- perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format
- perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and notes
- perlport - Writing portable Perl
- perlqnx - Perl version 5 on QNX
- perlre - Perl regular expressions
- perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
- perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references
- perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start
- perlreref - Perl Regular Expressions Reference
- perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial
- perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
- perlsec - Perl security
- perlsolaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems
- perlstyle - Perl style guide
- perlsub - Perl subroutines
- perlsyn - Perl syntax
- perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl
- perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
- perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
- perltodo - Perl TO-DO List
- perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl
- perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
- perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
- perltru64 - Perl version 5 on Tru64 (formerly known as Digital UNIX formerly known as DEC OSF/1) systems
- perltw - ?????? Perl ??n
- perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl
- perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction
- perlutil - utilities packaged with the Perl distribution
- perluts - Perl under UTS
- perlvar - Perl predefined variables
- perlvmesa - building and installing Perl for VM/ESA.
- perlvms - VMS-specific documentation for Perl
- perlvos - Perl for Stratus VOS
- perlwin32 - Perl under Windows
- perlxs - XS language reference manual
- perlxstut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs
- pf2afm - Make an AFM file from Postscript (PFB/PFA/PFM) font files using ghostscript
- pfbtopfa - Convert Postscript .pfb fonts to .pfa format using ghostscript
- pfbtops - translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII
- pftp - file transfer program
- pgawk - pattern scanning and processing language
- pgrep - look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes
- pic2graph - convert a PIC diagram into a cropped image
- piconv - piconv -- , reinvented in perl
- pinfo - pinfo
- pinky - lightweight finger
- pkcs12 - PKCS#12 file utility
- pkcs7 - PKCS#7 utility
- pkcs8 - PKCS#8 format private key conversion tool
- pl2pm - Rough tool to translate Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules.
- play - play any sound file to audio device
- pman - pinfo
- pmap - display information about process memory mappings
- pnm2ppa - convert portable images to HP's PPA printer format.
- pod2html - convert .pod files to .html files
- pod2latex - convert pod documentation to latex format
- pod2man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
- pod2text - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
- pod2usage - print usage messages from embedded pod docs in files
- podchecker - check the syntax of POD format documentation files
- podselect - print selected sections of pod documentation on standard output
- POST - lwp-Simple WWW user agent
- ppm2tiff - create a
- pr - convert text files for printing
- printafm - Print the metrics from a Postscript font in AFM format using ghostscript
- printenv - print all or part of environment
- printf - format and print data
- procmail - autonomous mail processor
- profiles - A utility to report and change SIDs in registry files
- ps - report process status
- ps2ascii - Ghostscript translator from PostScript or PDF to ASCII
- ps2epsi - generate conforming Encapsulated PostScript
- ps2pdf - Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript
- ps2pdf12 - Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript
- ps2pdf13 - Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript
- ps2pdfwr - Convert PostScript to PDF without specifying CompatibilityLevel, using ghostscript
- ps2ps - Ghostscript PostScript "distiller"
- psbook - rearrange pages in PostScript file into signatures
- psed - a stream editor
- psfaddtable - add a Unicode character table to a console font
- psfgettable - extract the embedded Unicode character table from a console font
- psfstriptable - remove the embedded Unicode character table from a console font
- psfxtable - handle Unicode character tables for console fonts
- psmerge - filter to merge several PostScript files into one
- psnup - multiple pages per sheet
- psresize - multiple pages per sheet
- psselect - select pages from a PostScript file
- pstops - shuffle pages in a PostScript file
- pstree - display a tree of processes
- pstruct - Dump C structures as generated from "cc -g -S" stabs
- ptx - produce a permuted index of file contents
- pwd - print name of current/working directory
- python - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language
- quota - display disk usage and limits
- ranlib - generate index to archive.
- ras2tiff - create a
- rcp -
- rdate - get the time via the network
- rdist - remote file distribution client program
- rdjpgcom - display text comments from a JPEG file
- readelf - Displays information about ELF files.
- readlink - display value of a symbolic link
- readprofile - a tool to read kernel profiling information
- rec - play any sound file to audio device
- red - text editor
- redhat-config-httpd - redhat-config-HTTPD configuration utility
- refer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff
- rename - Rename files
- req - There are two separate formats for the distinguished name and attribute
- reset - terminal initialization
- resize - set TERMCAP and terminal settings to current xterm window size
- rev -
- rexec - rexec -- remote execution client for an exec server
- rgb2ycbcr - convert non-YCbCr
- ripemd160 - message digests
- rlogin -
- rm - remove files or directories
- rmdir - remove empty directories
- rmdtovbox - isdn voice box (sound converter)
- rmic - Generate stubs for Remote Method Invocation
- rmiregistry - Remote object registry
- rpcclient - tool for executing client side MS-RPC functions
- rpcgen - an RPC protocol compiler
- rsa - RSA key processing tool
- rsautl - RSA utility
- rsh -
- rsvg - Turn SVG files into raster images
- run - run
- runscript - script interpreter for minicom
- rvi - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- rview - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- rvim - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- rz - XMODEM, YMODEM, ZMODEM (Batch) file receive
- s2p - a stream editor
- s_client - SSL/TLS client program
- scp -
- script -
- scrollkeeper-config - scrollkeeper-print ScrollKeeper configuration information
- scrollkeeper-gen-seriesid - scrollkeeper-gen-generate a unique id for a document
- sdiff - find differences between two files and merge interactively
- sed - manual page for sed version 4.0.7
- seq - print a sequence of numbers
- sess_id - SSL/TLS session handling utility
- setfacl - set file access control lists
- setfattr - set extended attributes of filesystem objects
- setleds - set the keyboard leds
- setmetamode - define the keyboard meta key handling
- setterm - set terminal attributes
- sftp -
- sgi2tiff - create a
- sh - GNU Bourne-Again SHell
- sha - message digests
- sha1 - message digests
- sha1sum - compute and check SHA1 message digest
- showkey - examine the codes sent by the keyboard
- shred - delete a file securely, first overwriting it to hide its contents
- size - list section sizes and total size.
- skill - report process status
- slabtop - display kernel slab cache information in real time
- sleep - delay for a specified amount of time
- slocate - Security Enhanced version of the GNU Locate
- slogin -
- smbcacls - Set or get ACLs on an NT file or directory names
- smbclient - ftp-like client to access SMB/CIFS resources on servers
- smbcontrol - send messages to smbd, nmbd or winbindd processes
- smbcquotas - Set or get QUOTAs of NTFS 5 shares
- smbstatus - report on current Samba connections
- smbtar - shell script for backing up SMB/CIFS shares directly to UNIX tape drives
- smbtree - A text based smb network browser
- smime - S/MIME utility
- soelim - interpret .so requests in groff input
- sort - sort lines of text files
- sox - Sound eXchange : universal sound sample translator
- soxexam - SoX Examples (CHEAT SHEET)
- soxmix - Sound eXchange : universal sound sample translator
- speed - test library performance
- spkac - SPKAC printing and generating utility
- splain - Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics
- split - split a file into pieces
- sprof - Read and display shared object profiling data
- s_server - SSL/TLS server program
- ssh -
- ssh-add -
- ssh-agent -
- ssh-keygen -
- ssh-keyscan -
- sslpasswd - compute password hashes
- sslrand - generate pseudo-random bytes
- star - unique standard tape archiver
- stat - display file or filesystem status
- statserial -
- strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.
- strip - Discard symbols from object files.
- stty - change and print terminal line settings
- su - run a shell with substitute user and group IDs
- sum - checksum and count the blocks in a file
- switchdesk - graphical and text mode interface for choosing desktop environment
- sync - flush filesystem buffers
- tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
- tack - terminfo action checker
- tail - output the last part of files
- talk -
- tar - The GNU version of the tar archiving utility
- taskset - retrieve or set a processes's CPU affinity
- tcsh - C shell with file name completion and command line editing
- tee - read from standard input and write to standard output and files
- telnet - protocol
- test - check file types and compare values
- testparm - check an smb.conf configuration file for internal correctness
- testprns - check printer name for validity with smbd
- tfmtodit - create font files for use with groff -Tdvi
- thumbnail - create a
- tic - the terminfo entry-description compiler
- tiff2bw - convert a color
- tiff2ps - convert a
- tiff2rgba - convert a
- tiffcmp - compare two
- tiffcp - copy (and possibly convert) a
- tiffdither - convert a greyscale image to bilevel using dithering
- tiffdump - print verbatim information about
- tiffgt - display an image stored in a
- tiffinfo - print information about
- tiffmedian - apply the median cut algorithm to data in a
- tiffsplit - split a multi-image
- tiffsv - save an image from the framebuffer in a
- time - time a simple command or give resource usage
- tload - graphic representation of system load average
- toe - table of (terminfo) entries
- top - display top CPU processes
- touch - change file timestamps
- tput - initialize a terminal or query terminfo database
- tr - translate or delete characters
- troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system
- true - do nothing, successfully
- tset - terminal initialization
- tsort - perform topological sort
- tty - print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
- ul -
- uname - print system information
- unexpand - convert spaces to tabs
- unicode_start - put keyboard and console in unicode mode
- unicode_stop - revert keyboard and console from unicode mode
- uniq - remove duplicate lines from a sorted file
- unix2dos -
- unlink - call the unlink function to remove the specified file
- unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
- unzipsfx - self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives
- updatedb - update the slocate database
- uptime - Tell how long the system has been running.
- userinfo - A graphical equivilient to chfn.
- usermount - A graphical tool to mount, unmount and format filesystems.
- userpasswd - A graphical tool to allow users to change their passwords.
- users - print the user names of users currently logged in to the current host
- usleep - sleep some number of microseconds
- uuidgen - command-line utility to create a new UUID value
- vbox - interact with recorded messages
- vboxbeep - isdn voice box (beeper)
- vboxconvert - isdn voice box (converter backend)
- vboxctrl - control vbox functions
- vboxmode - detect format of isdn voice file
- vboxplay - play vbox sound files
- vboxtoau - isdn voice box (sound converter)
- vdir - list directory contents
- verify - Utility to verify certificates.
- version - print OpenSSL version information
- vfstest - tool for testing samba VFS modules
- vi - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- view - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- vim - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
- vimdiff - edit two or three versions of a file with Vim and show differences
- vimtutor - the Vim tutor
- vncconfig - configure and control a VNC server
- vncpasswd - change a VNC password
- vncserver - start or stop a VNC server
- volname - return volume name
- w - show who is logged on and what they are doing
- wall - wall -- send a message to everybody's terminal.
- watch - execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen
- wbinfo - Query information from winbind daemon
- wc - print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
- wftopfa - Convert a Wadalab base font to Postscript .PFA (or .PFB)
- wget - GNU Wget Manual
- whatis - search the whatis database for complete words.
- whereis - locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
- which - shows the full path of (shell) commands.
- who - show who is logged on
- whoami - print effective userid
- write - send a message to another user
- wrjpgcom - insert text comments into a JPEG file
- wvdial - PPP dialer with built-in intelligence.
- wvdialconf - build a configuration file for
- x0vncserver - inefficient VNC server which continuously polls an X display
- x509 - The nameopt command line switch determines how the subject and issuer
- x86info - x86info -- display x86 CPU diagnostics
- xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input
- xgettext - extract gettext strings from source
- xmlcatalog - Command line tool to parse and manipulate XML or SGML catalog files.
- xmllint - command line XML tool
- xmlwf - Determines if an XML document is well-formed
- xsltproc - command line xslt processor
- xsubpp - compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code
- xterm - terminal emulator for X
- Xvnc - the X VNC server
- xxd - xxd
- yapp - A perl frontend to the Parse::Yapp module
- yes - output a string repeatedly until killed
- ypcat - print values of all keys in a NIS database
- ypmatch - print the values of one or more keys from a NIS map
- yppasswd - change your password in the NIS database
- ypwhich - return name of NIS server or map master
- zdiff - compare compressed files
- zforce - force a '.gz' extension on all gzip files
- zgrep - search possibly compressed files for a regular expression
- zip - package and compress (archive) files
- zipgrep - search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern
- zipinfo - list detailed information about a ZIP archive
- zless - file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text
- zmore - file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text
- znew - znew - recompress .Z files to .gz files
- zsoelim - interpret .so requests in groff input
- Forgot one very important:
grep -- Allows selecting of certain output based on a word, ex: ps aux|grep rob
will list every process with 'rob' in it
also works well with ls -la (or -al) if your looking if a perticular file is there.
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eNom DNS Setting Definitions
|SLD||The SLD is the second level domain. For example, in "www.myname.com", "myname" is the SLD. If you are creating a new name, fill-in the field provided under "SLD" with only the SLD part of your name. Do not include the ".". The name can have any character ("a" to "z"), any number ("0" to "9 "), the minus ("-") sign, and the underscore ("_") in the name. Spaces are not allowed.|
|TLD||The TLD is the top level domain. For example, in "www.myname.com", "com" is the TLD. If you are creating a new name, fill-in the field provided under "TLD" with the TLD part of your name. Do not include the ".". The name can have any character ("a" to "z"), any number ("0" to "9 "), the minus ("-") sign, and the underscore ("_") in the name. Spaces are not allowed.|
|Address||This table associates a name with an address. You can associate any name with any Address. The address is either a numerical designator assigned to a computer on the network, or the host and domain of a machine, or a URL. None can be greater than 58 characters total (if you need more space, for a URL for example, please let us know)|
If you want the record to point to an IP address, you must select either a record type of "Address (A)" or a record type of "Mail (MX)". You must also use the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. The first and fourth xxx are numbers between 1 and 254. The second and third xxx are numbers between 0 and 254. An example of an IP address is: "188.8.131.52". If you are creating a new name, we have already filled-in the "www" host address with a default IP address that will display a web page that you can use to make sure the name is being properly delegated by our servers. This default web page address is "184.108.40.206". You are not required to use this IP address, and in fact, you will probably want to use your own as soon as you can. FYI, some other IP address are: (Netscape 220.127.116.11), (Microsoft 18.104.22.168) and (Yahoo 22.214.171.124).
If you use a host and domain combination, you must select the record type of "Alias (CNAME)". You must also use the format "www.mydomain.com.".
If you want the record to be forwarded to a URL you must select "URL" from the drop-down menu and enter a valid URL into the "Address" box.
If you do not enter a valid name, URL or IP, then that host record (name & address pair) will not be added to the DNS or our database.
|Record type||We allow five types of address records to be added to our DNS servers. They are as follows: |
If we receive requests for a record type that is not listed we will consider adding it. We would, however, prefer to keep things as simple as we can in order to eliminate possible confusion.
- A (Address) Using this type of record allows you to associate a host with an IP address. The IP address that you use does not have to be on your network. For example, you could have the host record for www point to 126.96.36.199 (the address for the Microsoft web site).
- MXE (Mail Easy) Using a mail record allows you to specify the address of your mail server. When you use a mail record, you must use an IP address in the address field. (Experts: Creating a mail record actually creates both the MX and the A record in DNS. Also, when using multiple mail servers, a preference value of 10 is used on all entries).
- MX (Mail) Can be either a host name under this domain name (for example, "mail3") or the name of a mail server (for example, "mail.yahoo.com."). NOTE: When using a mail server name, it should end with a period ".". (If you forget the period and we recognize the TLD, we will automatically insert one.).
- CNAME (Alias) An alias record type is used to associate a host name with another host. The host that you wish to point to does not have to be on your network. For example, you could have the host record for www point to www.microsoft.com. You can also simply use an "@" to represent your domain. Important: When you use a domain in the address field you must add a trailing period ("."). Unless you do so the name server will add your domain to the end of the domain given.
- URL Redirect URL Redirect is the standard method for URL Forwarding. When the client types in your domain name they are redirected to the web server that your page is hosted on. The only drawback of this method is as the person is looking around the site the URL that is displayed by the browser is the one of the actual web page, not your domain name. If this is a problem you can use the URL Frame method.
- URL Frame URL Frame is similar to URL Redirect except that instead of redirecting the client to your web page, the web page is displayed in a frame from our web server. With this method the client's browser will display your domain name (for example: www.mydomain.com) while they are using your site and not the actual URL to your page (for example: home.infospace.com/chris33).
Note: If you use this method of forwarding, you will want to put the 'target="_top"' attribute into any links you have that leave your page.
- TXT (Text) Provides the ability to associate some text with a host or other name. The TXT record is used to define the Sender Policy Framework (SPF) information record which may be used to validate legitimate email sources from a domain. The SPF record while being increasing deployed is not a formal IETF RFC standard.
|E-Mail Forwarding||The E-Mail Forwarding section allows you to create e-mail addresses with your domain name. For example, if your domain name was "mydomain.com", you could create the e-mail address "firstname.lastname@example.org". Note: if you are using e-mail forwarding do not add your own MX record, it will add one for you. |
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- User This is the first part of the e-mail address you want to create. For the address "email@example.com", you would put "info" into the blank in the user column.
- Domain This displays the second part of the e-mail address, this is your domain name. The "User" and "Domain" columns make up the full e-mail address.
- Forward To This is the e-mail address that you want all the mail coming to the account you just created to be forwarded to. This needs to be a complete, valid e-mail address. It could be an e-mail account you already have from an ISP or a free e-mail account, etc.
cPanel Programmer's Doku as PDF for download
How to upgrade an account
- If you have a "Home User" account, an upgrade is possible to a "Power User" account and to do by same way like you order a new "Power User" account. This also means, you have to pay the one times setup fee.
- If If you have a "Power User" account, read HERE You do not pay set up fee again.
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How to Renewal a Domain Name
More cPanel Flash Tutorials
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How to integrate Moneybookers.com as Payment Way
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